Amberd Fort-City, Armenia
Amberd "fortress in the clouds" fort-city was built in X century in the triangular cape where the rivers Arkashen and Amberd are joined. The mansion and some sections of walls were constructed in the VII century by the noble house of Kamsarakan. In X century the fortress was the military defense center of Pahlavuni and Bagratuni kingdom and in historical sources Amberd is mentioned as summer residence of the kings. In 1026 Vahram Pahlavuni built Surb Astnatsatsin church (Holy Mother of God). In XI century the fortress was invaded by the Seljuks and became their military center. In 1196 Zakare managed to free Amberd from Seljuks, and the fortress became his property. In XIII the fort-city was an administrative center of Vachutyans (the envoy of Zakaryan), however in 1236 Mongols invented Amberd and almost completely ruined it. At the end of XIII century Vatuchyans again rebuilt the fortress. Amberd lost its significance after the Turk-Tatar invasions and became completely desolate in XIV century after invasion of Lenkremur.