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Nuremberg Castle, Bavaria, Germany

History of German Nazism is associated with several important architectural monuments. One of them had tremendous importance in the process of Adolf Hitler’s rise to power. From 1923 to 1939, nine of eleven congresses of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party) were held in Nuremberg (also called Imperial) Сastle. This fortress was the place where Hitler's popularity grew rapidly among his Nazi compatriots, which then led to irreversible changes in the world. This location was chosen by the Nazis thanks to the castle’s important role in the times of the Holy Roman Empire. The fortress is often called "the first among equals." Nuremberg castle often was being used as a capital of the Holy Roman Empire, which officially had no capital city. For example, the elections of emperors were held in this castle.

Nuremberg Castle has been standing on the top of a cliff for more than thousand years. First time the fortress is mentioned in manuscripts in 1050, but excavations have shown that settlements on the site existed before the 10th century BC. Till today existing buildings of the Nuremberg castle have been built since the 11th century.

During the five centuries of the Holy Roman Empire - from the 12th century until its collapse in 1806, this fortress was one of the most important imperial settlements. Almost every emperor spent part of his time there. The fortress was reconstructed and renovated several times. During the Second World War, the castle was damaged, but after the end of the war it was renovated. The castle has a museum that illustrates history and highlights its importance for the Holy Roman Empire.

The Nuremberg castle consists of several buildings: the royal palace, two chapels, several towers, gardens of the emperor, castle fortifications and so on.

The oldest survived building is Pentagonal tower, built in the 11th century. Second oldest building of the castle is Dual Chapel, which was probably built in the 12th century. It consists of two stacked chapels, which are connected in the center. The upper chapel was intended for the emperor and his family, and the lower one - for aristocrats and courtiers.

The castle has a well - so-called Deep Well, which had rescued the Nuremberg’s habitant’s life many times during the sieges of the castle. According to some sources, some kind of Hanging Gardens of Babylon was set in the 15th century, which, however, did not survive to the present day.

The castle has dungeons which originally were used as beer cellars for the emperors, but after the end of the World War II a Nazi cache was found here, containing the priceless art works looted from various European countries. After the war end, these exhibits were returned to their owners.

By Anna Pambukhchyan,


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